The Museum is housed in a newly constructed building at the centre of the contemporary city of Pythagoreion, the location of the ancient city of Samos. The exhibition of the archaeological material from the area, classified chronologically and thematically, illuminates aspects of the historical and cultural evolution of ancient Samos from the Neolithic period (4th millennium BC) to late antiquity (7th cent. AD).
The Museum collections include finds from the Neolithic settlement of Kastro and the Geometric necropolis of Samos, pottery spanning from the 9th until the 2nd centuries BC, as well as an important group of Archaic and Roman sculptures.
Among the most important exhibits of the museum are: